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Jargon Description

Implementation involves putting research findings into practice. This means using research findings to make appropriate decisions and changes to health and social care policy and practice.

In-patients Care

Provided in a hospital where patient will stay overnight at least one night.

Incapacitated Adult

An adult unable by virtue of physical or mental incapacity to give informed consent.

Inclusion Criteria

Specific criteria which are defined within the study protocol that expressly include specific individuals to participate in a study e.g. individuals within a certain age range, with a specific condition, etc.


Compensation for damage, loss or injury

Informed Consent

A process by which a subject voluntarily confirms his or her willingness to participate in a particular trial, after having been informed of all aspects of the trial that are relevant to the subject’s decision to participate.


The act by a competent authority of conducting an official review of documents, facilities, records, quality assurance arrangements, and any other resources that are deemed by the competent authority to be related to the clinical trial and that may be located at the site of the trial, at the sponsor’s and/or contract research organisation’s facilities, or at other establishments which the competent authority sees fit to inspect.

Integrated Care Partnerships/Providers ICP

ICP can stand for Integrated Care Providers, which bring together primary, secondary, community and other health and social care services under a single contract. The intention is to focus on population health by designing and delivering all health and care services for the local community within an agreed budget. This contractual mechanism is not yet widely used as it is complicated to implement but could become more widespread in future. 

Integrated Care Pathway

A multidisciplinary outline of anticipated care, placed in an appropriate timeframe, to help a patient with a specific condition.

Integrated Care Systems ICS

An ICS brings NHS providers, Clinical Commissioning Group (CCGs), local authorities and voluntary sector partners together to collaboratively plan and organise how health and care services are delivered in their area. There are currently 42 ICSs across England and each covers a population size of 1-3 million. The goal is that ICSs will remove barriers between organisations to deliver better, more joined up care for local communities. While they are currently informal partnerships, the government’s white paper states that the forthcoming NHS Bill will make ICSs legal bodies, and give them responsibility for funding, performance and population health.

Integrated Research Application System

The online application system used to apply for most permissions and approvals for research in health and social care in the UK.

Intellectual Property

IP can be described as the novel or previously undescribed tangible output of any intellectual activity. It has an owner and can be bought, sold or licensed and must be adequately protected. It can include inventions, industrial processes, software, data, written works, designs and images.

Interactive Response Technology

Is software that enables activities such as randomisation into clinical trial and dispensing medications in a blinded trial. Examples include telephone based Interactive Voice Response Systems or internet based, Interactive Web Response Systems.

Interim Analysis

Analysis comparing intervention groups at any time before the formal completion of a trial, usually before recruitment is complete. Often used with stopping rules so that a trial can be stopped if participants are being put at risk unnecessarily. Timing and frequency of interim analyses should be specified in the protocol.

International Conference on Harmonisation

Defined standards for the terminology, design, conduct, monitoring, recording, analysis and reporting of a study. These standards give assurance that the reported results are accurate and credible and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of all study participants have been protected throughout the study.


An intervention is something that aims to make a change and is tested through research. For example, giving a drug, providing a counselling service, improving the environment or giving people information and training are all described as interventions.

Interventional Trial

A clinical study in which participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes. The assignments are determined by the study protocol. Participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions.


In research, an interview is a conversation between two or more people, where a researcher asks questions to obtain information from the person (or people) being interviewed. Interviews can be carried out in person (face-to-face) or over the phone.

Investigator Site File

The Investigator Site File contains all essential documents held by Principal Investigator(s) conducting a trial which individually and collectively permit the evaluation of the conduct of a trial and the quality of the data produced.


Involve is a national advisory group that supports greater public involvement in NHS, public health and social care research.


Involvement in research refers to active involvement between people who use services, carers and researchers, rather than the use of people as participants in research (or as research ‘subjects’). Many people describe involvement as doing research with or by people who use services rather than to, about or for them.


The word involvement does not simply mean informing, but increasingly co-production and partnership working and, ultimately, patient led activity.